보물구리 동구릉 건원릉 정자각 (九里 東九陵 健元陵 丁字閣)
T-shaped Wooden Shrine at Geonwolleung Royal Tomb, Guri
|분 류||유적건조물 / 무덤 / 왕실무덤 / 조선시대|
|소 재 지||경기도 구리시 동구릉로 197 (인창동)|
|관리자(관리단체)||문화재청 조선왕릉관리소 동부지구관리소|
건원릉(健元陵)은 조선을 건국한 태조고황제(太祖高皇帝)의 능으로 구리 동구릉에서 가장 먼저 조성되었다. 건원릉은 기본적으로 고려 공민왕의 현릉(玄陵) 양식을 따르고 있으나, 고려 왕릉에는 없었던 곡장을 봉분 주위에 두르는 등 세부적으로 석물의 조형과 배치 면에서 일정한 변화를 보여주고 있다.
정자각은 제향(祭享, 제사)을 지내는 건물이다. 정면 3칸, 측면 2칸인 정전에 2칸의 배위청이 결합한 ‘丁’자형 평면의 건물로, 태조가 세상을 떠난 1408년(태종 8)에 건립되었다. 이후 조선시대 전반에 걸쳐 수리하였다는 기록이 남아 있는데, 특히 1764년(영조 40) 건물이 크게 퇴락하자 중수청을 설치하여 수리하였다. 전체적으로 조선시대 정자각의 전형적인 형태를 잘 따르고 있으며, 기둥 상부의 익공(翼工)형식은 18세기의 수법을 보여주고 있어 1764년(영조 40) 중수 당시의 시대적 특징을 잘 반영하고 있다.
『국조오례서례』 길례 「단묘도설」 중 산릉에 대해서 ‘침전(寢殿:정자각)은 능실(陵室) 남쪽에 위치하는데, 북쪽에 앉아 남쪽을 향한다. 모두 3칸으로 동쪽과 서쪽에 계단이 있고, 신좌는 북쪽에서 남쪽을 향한다.’ 라고 기록되어 있다. 여기서 3칸은 신좌를 배설하고 의례를 행하는 정전만 지칭하는 것으로 2칸의 배위청과 결합하면 5칸이 된다.
이 기록과 비교해 볼 때 건원릉 정자각은 건립 당시의 기본 틀을 그대로 유지하고 있어 조선 1대 태조고황제의 능인 건원릉 정자각이라는 상징적 의미뿐만 아니라, 조선의 능침제도 중 정자각의 표준으로서 역사적, 예술적, 학술적 가치가 큰 건물이다.
Geonwolleung is the Royal Tomb of King Taejo of the Joseon Dynasty, located inside the East Nine Royal Tombs in Guri, Gyeonggi-do. This tomb, constructed in 1408 (the eighth year of King Taejong’s reign), was modeled on Hyeolleung, the Royal Tomb of King Gongmin of the Goryeo Dynasty. Building a jeongjagak (T-shaped Wooden Shrine) alongside a king’s tomb was a custom practiced since the Goryeo Period, and this custom was followed, in Joseon, from the early years of the dynasty. Geonwolleung also was constructed with the shrine. The shrine was built south of the tomb, on a downslope, as dictated by the custom. This shrine, built in 1408 (the eighth year of King Taejong’s reign), at the same time as the construction of the tomb itself, is recorded to have been renovated in 1586 (the 19th year of King Seonjo’s reign). A legend has it that in 1592 (the 25th year of King Seonjo’s reign), Japanese troops unsuccessfully attempted to set the tomb on fire, as it refused to catch fire. According to Sukjong sillok (Annals of King Sukjong), King Sukjong renounced his plan to refurbish Geonwolleung after hearing this strange account. However, in 1764 (the 40th year of King Yeongjo’s reign), a decision was reached to repair the shrine of Geonwolleung, by then seriously dilapidated, and the Directorate for Restoration was set up to oversee the repair. Some two decades later, in 1784 (the eighth year of King Jeongjo’s reign), new repair work was done to the same building, but, this time, at a smaller scale. In 1879 (the 16th year of King Gojong’s reign), the building was again repaired under a project for refurbishing the shrine of several royal tombs including Mongneung, Hwireung, Hyereung, Wolleung, Sureung, and Gyeongneung. According to Ilseongnok (Daily Records of the Royal Court and Important Officials), the Yeongjo-era royal chronicle, the repair made at this time was mainly for the stele pavilions and stone steps outside the shrine. The last recorded repair made in Geonwolleung took place in 1899 and concerned stone graveyard monuments. Its shrine is likely not to have been touched at this time. In Gukjo oryeui (Five Rites of State), a Joseon-era book describing five major state rites, the ideal location for a jeongjagak is said to be south of a grave. The jeongjagak should furthermore be three kan (the space between two columns, one kan being about 2.5m) in width and face the south with steps on its east and west sides, according to the same book. The book also provides the image of an ideal shrine. The shrine of Geonwolleung matches this drawing quite precisely, in terms both of its appearance and position in relation to the grave. The shrine lies north of the hongsalmun gate and south of the grave. The building rests on a long rectangular stone platform and consists of a main area measuring three kan on the front and two on the side with two lateral wings, each measuring one kan on the front and two on the side, for an overall plan which is shaped like the letter “T.” The cleanly-shaped platform is built with four tiers of rectangular stone blocks. The right railing of the stone steps leading up to the platform on the east side of the building, meanwhile, is severely defaced, making it difficult to make out the image sculpted on its surface. But, it is probably a series of clouds, a customary motif in stonework for the shrine. The main area in the middle has two columnar brackets for each bracket arm, which has sculptural details, typical of the 18th-century style, at their tip. It is overall in the classical style of a Joseon shrine, in size as well as appearance. As for the columnar brackets, finished in the 18th-century style, they appear to have been redone during the renovation in 1764 (the 40th year of King Yeongjo’s reign).The shrine of Geonwolleung, although repaired and renovated several times since its construction in 1408, appears to have retained its original appearance, at least in terms of general appearance, judging from the information provided in Gukjo oryeui. The graveyard shrine for King Taejo, Joseon’s founding monarch, the shrine of Geonwolleung also holds a huge historical, artistic and academic significance as a reference in architecture related to the funerary rites and burial of Joseon royals.